What is Epithelium

In dermatology epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. In humans, it is one of four primary body tissues. Epithelium lines both the outside (skin) and the inside cavities and lumen of bodies.

The outermost layer of our skin is composed of dead stratified squamous epithelial cells, as are the mucous membranes lining the inside of mouths and body cavities. Other epithelial cells line the insides of the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive and urinary tracts, and make up the exocrine and endocrine glands.

Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, absorption, protection, transcellular transport, sensation detection, and selective permeability. Endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels) is a specialized form of epithelium.


Epithelial cells are classified by the following three factors:

* shape
* Stratification
* Specializations


* Squamous: Squamous cells are flat cells with an irregular flattened shape. The one-cell layer of simple squamous epithelium that forms the alveoli of the respiratory membrane, and the endothelium of capillaries, and is a minimal barrier to diffusion. Places where squamous cells can be found include the alveoli of the lungs, the filtration tubules of the kidneys, and the major cavities of the body. These cells are relatively inactive metabolically, and are associated with the diffusion of water, electrolytes, and other substances.

What Is Epi LASIK

Epi-LASIK surgery is a cross between LASIK and LASEK eye surgeries. It was designed to remove some of the complications associated with laser beam surgery. LASIK involved making a flap in the cornea with a sharp blade or laser beam.

Problems arose if the incision to made the flap too thick. LASEK surgery involves making an incision on the cornea’s outer layer and leaving it attached to the eye. The difference between these two surgeries and epi-LASIK is minor but still significant.

The surgeon uses a blunt, oscillating, plastic instrument instead of the finer metal blade used in LASIK and LASEK surgery. The surgeon does not use alcohol to aid in loosening the epithelial sheet; he uses the same blunt instrument.

This means that alcohol reactions in the eye can be avoided. This procedure is more suitable for those patients who have a low myopia. The cornea is less steep and the success rate is greater.

How Does It Work

Eye removal surgery

Eye removal surgery is completed in the most extreme circumstances and means that one or both of the eyes are removed. There are three types of surgery that can be carried out for eye removal.


Enucleation is a surgery that removes the eye but leaves the orbital contents and the eye muscles and intact in the eye socket. This surgery is normally completed when a person has tumors behind or around the eye, because when the tumors grow they impact the eye and orbit, damaging the parts of the eye they have restricted and causing a lot of pain.

Like most eye removal surgeries, the patient can have a prosthetic eye post surgery for cosmetic reasons.


This surgery is normally carried out on someone who is already blind in the eye being prepared for surgery and is having a lot of pain in the blind eye. During surgry the eye is removed, only leaving the scleral shell and extraocular muscles in the eye socket. Once the eye has been removed the patient can have an ocular prosthetic put over the eye socket for cosmetic purposes.

This surgery can be difficult for patients if they have vision in the second eye because they will see a huge visual difference in their appearance, although the prosthetic eye can be very concealing.

What is Atrial Myxoma

An atrial myxoma is a non-cancerous form of a tumor that develops either in the right side of the heart or the upper left side of the heart. This heart tumor forms on the wall that separates the one side of the heart from the other. This wall is known as the atrial septum.

An atrial myxoma (or sometimes referred to simply as a myxoma) is a primary heart or cardiac tumor that got its start from inside of the heart. There are other forms of heart tumors but this is the only kind that develops from inside the heart. It is rare to develop a primary heart tumor however of the group of them, myxomas are the most widespread.

Approximately 75 percent of all atrial myxomas develop in the left atrium for reasons unknown. Generally the tumor starts in the wall that separates the two upper chambers the comprise the heart. Approximately 25 percent of myxomas develop in the right atrium. When atrial myxomas develop in the right atrium they are often linked to atrial fibrillation and/or tricuspid stenosis.


Atrial myxomas are more widespread in females than they are in males. Why this is the case is unclear to members of the medical community. It is estimated that ten percent of myxomas. When heart tumors are genetically linked they are referred to as familial myxomas. These types of cardiac tumors have a tendency to show themselves at an early age and to take place in more than one region of the heart.

What is Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

Pulmonary valve stenosis is also sometimes referred to as heart valve pulmonary stenosis or valvular pulmonary stenosis. Pulmonary valvular stenosis is a health condition that usually makes itself known at birth (and therefore is congenital in nature) and in this case the blood that is being transported from the lower chamber of the heart (or the right ventricle) is obstructed in one way or another once it reaches the pulmonic valve. The pulmonic valve is the valve which provides separation between the heart and the pulmonary artery.


The most common reason for pulmonary valve stenosis to occur is when there is a malformation when the fetus is in its developmental stage. The precise cause of this heart problem is unclear. Sometimes a narrowing may show itself in the pulmonary valve or else the narrowing might occur beneath the pulmonary valve and be in the pulmonary artery instead.

Sometimes pulmonary valve stenosis is a defect that stands on its own but often times it appears alongside other defects of the heart. This problem can range from mild to moderate to severe and it known to occur in approximately ten percent of patients who have been diagnosed with congenital heart disease.

Enlarged Prostate Surgery

Patients with BPH may need removal of the enlarged part of the prostate by surgical methods. It is normally the best long-term solution for some patients with BPH. This surgery only removes the portion of the prostate gland that is pressing against the urethra tube. The rest of the gland is left intact as well as the outside capsule. There are different forms of surgery that are used in treating enlarged prostate glands.

Transurethral Surgery

Transurethral surgery is a type that does not need an external cut. After anesthesia is given the surgeon can reach the prostate by inserting the surgical instrument through the urethra tube.

Another form of surgery is the transurethral resection of the prostate or TURP. This method is used for 90 percent of all surgeries to correct BPH. An instrument called a resetoscope is inserted through the penis and uses a light and valves for controlling irrigating fluid, and a small electric loop to cut the tissue and seal blood vessels.

The instrument is about 12 inches long and ½ inch in diameter. This method of surgery takes about 90 minutes and the excess tissue from the gland is taken to the bladder then flushed after surgery. Most doctors prefer this method because it causes fewer traumas to the body and has a shorter recovery time.

Prostate Inflammation: Prostatitis

The most common condition that affects the prostate is inflammation, which is also known as prostatitis. Since the prostate gland is connected to the urethra and grows in a ring around the neck of the bladder, if the gland becomes swollen, a patient may lose the ability to urinate comfortably. Urination may become painful and in extreme cases even impossible. Depending upon its severity, a swollen prostate gland can be treated with surgery, antibiotics and even massage therapy. Prostatitis can often be the result of a bacterial infection as well.


One form of prostate gland inflammation is benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, a prostate condition that only affects older men. Basically, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a swelling of the prostate gland that does not result as an effect of prostate cancer. Unfortunately, since the prostate gland grows wrapped around the upper portion of the urethra, if it swells, negative side-effects can result. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy.


Bacterial infection can also cause swelling of the prostate gland. The most severe form of prostatitis caused by infections is called acute bacterial prostatitis. Men who are afflicted with acute bacterial prostatitis will go through fever and chills, and may feel as if they have come down with the flu.

What is Corpora Amylacea

Corpora amylacea, also known as amyloids, is the accumulation of dense amounts of calcified materials that are protein based in nature.

Corpora amylacea normally affects men who are more senior in age, by this we mean men over the age of about sixty years old.

What is the full explanation of Corpora amylacea?

The calcified material, which is an insoluble fibrous protein, blocks the prostatic ducts. This is believed to happen when the prostate cannot function normally and the fluid it produces cannot be secreted properly or if there has been an infection in the prostate and the pus from the infection cannot drain properly.

If this happens the fluids stuck in the ducts harden over time and calcify causing little stones which block the tube where the fluids pass out the prostate, this makes more fluid build up and causes more stone to be made over a period of time.

Are there any other affects because of Corpora amylacea?

No not really, sometimes people may have this condition for years and not know, although there is a belief that Corpora amylacea can be an underlying issue due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.