Structural Brain Changes Linked To Parkinson’s Cognitive Impairment

Individuals with cognitive impairment and Parkinson’s disease show disruptions in their brain networks that can be seen on a type of MRI, a study from San Raffaele Scientific Institute has found.

An MRI technique called diffusion tractography was used to look for differences in the neural networks of PD patients with and without mild cognitive impairment. Lead investigator Massimo Filippi, M.D., from the Neuroimaging Research Unit at San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan, Italy, worked with coauthors Federica Agosta, M.D., Ph.D., and Sebastiano Galantucci, M.D., and other colleagues on the research.

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremors or trembling and stiffness in the limbs, impaired balance and coordination.

It affects about 10 million people worldwide. As Parkinson’s disease (PD) progresses, many patients develop mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a decline in cognitive abilities, including thinking, memory and language. MCI can be identified in approximately 25 percent of newly diagnosed PD patients, and patients with MCI progress to dementia more frequently than those with normal cognitive performance.

Connectome Analysis

Increasingly, the human brain is understood as an integrated network, or connectome, that has both a structural and functional component. By applying an analytical tool called graph analysis to the imaging results, researchers can measure the relationships among highly connected and complex data like the network of connections in the human brain.

“Cognitive impairment in PD is one of the major non-motor complications of the disease, as well as one of the major concerns of patients and caregivers at the time of diagnosis,” Dr. Agosta said. “Study of the changes related to cognitive impairment in PD is imperative in order to be able to answer patients’ questions and finally be able to predict the future development of this condition.”

The study involved 170 PD patients, including 54 with MCI and 116 without, and 41 healthy controls. Analysis of imaging results showed that only Parkinson’s disease patients with MCI had significant alterations at the brain network level.

Cicrostructural white matter damage

Cicrostructural white matter damage (tract-based spatial statistics). Areas of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) (red) and increased mean diffusivity (blue) overlapped on the overall FA skeleton (green) in groups of patients with Parkinson disease compared with healthy control subjects (P < .05 corrected for multiple comparisons). Credit: Radiological Society of North America

Measurements of the movement and diffusion of water in the brain, an indicator of the condition of the brain’s signal-carrying white matter, differentiated PD patients with mild cognitive impairment from healthy controls and non-MCI PD patients with a good accuracy. Researchers said the results show that cognitive impairment in PD is likely the consequence of a disruption of complex structural brain networks rather than degeneration of individual white matter bundles.

Monitoring And Predicting Cognitive Complications

The results may offer markers to differentiate PD patients with and without cognitive deficits, according to Dr. Agosta.

“If confirmed and replicated by other studies, these results would suggest the use of MRI in PD to support the clinicians in monitoring the disease and predicting the occurrence of cognitive complications,” she said.

The researchers have obtained resting state functional MRI data from the patients and plan to study the functional connectome alterations associated with cognitive impairment in PD and how structural and functional abnormalities are interrelated.

Structural Brain Connectome and Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease.
Filippi, Agosta and Galantucci, Elka Stefanova, M.D., Silvia Basaia, M.Sc., Martijn P. van den Heuvel, Ph.D., Tanja Stojković, M.D., Elisa Canu, Ph.D., Iva Stanković, M.D., Vladana Spica, M.D., Massimiliano Copetti, Ph.D., Delia Gagliardi, M.D., and Vladimir S. Kostic, M.D.
Radiology

Top Image: Affected structural connections in patients with PD and MCI relative to healthy control subjects and patients with Parkinson disease (PD) without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The principal connected component is shown in red, and the other affected connections not included in the principal connected component are shown in green. Subnetworks show altered structural connectivity (decreased fractional anisotropy or increased mean diffusivity) in patients with PD and MCI relative to healthy control subjects at P < .01 Credit: Radiological Society of North America