Non Refractive Eye Surgeries

There are other surgeries on the eye that are not specifically to improve your vision. There are conditions and complications of the eye that do need laser or incision surgery. One of the most common forms of eye surgery is to remove cataracts.

A cataract is a cloudiness of the eye’s lens and is normally because of aging or occasionally from a trauma. A cataract prevents light from forming a clear image on the retina of the eye. Surgical removal of the lens may be necessary. The lens is replaced with a plastic intraocular lens. Cataract surgery is done often and has no complications or lengthy recovery times.


Another common form of eye surgery is to correct glaucoma problems. Glaucoma is a group of diseases that result in vision loss because they affect the optic nerve. There are various glaucoma surgeries and sometimes a surgeon will use a combination of several surgeries to lower intraocular pressure.

These surgeries will either help the eye to release excess aqueous humor from the eye or to lower the production of that material. An excess of aqueous humor raises intraocular pressure and causes glaucoma. There are various surgeries that will correct the excess of aqueous humor. A few of them are:

Histoplasmosis Lesion Surgery

Histoplasmosis is common for people living in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. Histoplasmosis is believed caused by the farm dust in that area. Agriculture is the blamed for the flu-like symptoms of histoplasmosis. This is especially true because of the soil has been enriched with bird and bat droppings. Histoplasmosis is usually found in the lungs, the patient is treated and they go on with their life.

If the disease has spread to other parts of the body, it can create serious health problems. This disease is treated with a medication that works against fungus. Histoplasmosis is taken into the body by the air people breathe that is infected with fungus spores.

The fungus often grows around old chicken houses, in caves and other areas where bats live. It can also be found where there is a large flock of blackbirds. People who live or have lived on farms are susceptible to this disease and its complications.

People who have this disease usually have no noticeable aftereffects unless their eyes are affected. Small lesions may occur that might lead to new blood vessels and scar tissue in the retina.

Will Surgery Help

What is LASEK

Laser assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy is a form of laser eye surgery that many people are turning to more and more, removing the need to wear glasses or contact lenses. Lasek is a relatively new surgery and is almost a variation of PRK laser surgery.

Laser-Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy

The treatment involves using an excimer laser (ultraviolet chemical laser) to burn off tissue from the corneal stroma (tough, fibrous tissue), which is located at the front of the eye.

Before the laser is used to burn off the tissue, surgeons remove the outer layer of the cornea known as the epithelium with a trephine before applying an alcohol based substance for a short period to loosen the epithelium; this tissue is soft and has the ability to grow again quite rapidly.

The epithelium is then moved like a flap of skin so the laser can work on the corneal tissue underneath. The deeper layer within the cornea if reshaped by laser treatment won’t regenerate as easily as the epithelium and only has limited healing powers.

The after affects of surgery

What is Epithelium

In dermatology epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. In humans, it is one of four primary body tissues. Epithelium lines both the outside (skin) and the inside cavities and lumen of bodies.

The outermost layer of our skin is composed of dead stratified squamous epithelial cells, as are the mucous membranes lining the inside of mouths and body cavities. Other epithelial cells line the insides of the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive and urinary tracts, and make up the exocrine and endocrine glands.

Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, absorption, protection, transcellular transport, sensation detection, and selective permeability. Endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels) is a specialized form of epithelium.


Epithelial cells are classified by the following three factors:

* shape
* Stratification
* Specializations


* Squamous: Squamous cells are flat cells with an irregular flattened shape. The one-cell layer of simple squamous epithelium that forms the alveoli of the respiratory membrane, and the endothelium of capillaries, and is a minimal barrier to diffusion. Places where squamous cells can be found include the alveoli of the lungs, the filtration tubules of the kidneys, and the major cavities of the body. These cells are relatively inactive metabolically, and are associated with the diffusion of water, electrolytes, and other substances.

What Is Epi LASIK

Epi-LASIK surgery is a cross between LASIK and LASEK eye surgeries. It was designed to remove some of the complications associated with laser beam surgery. LASIK involved making a flap in the cornea with a sharp blade or laser beam.

Problems arose if the incision to made the flap too thick. LASEK surgery involves making an incision on the cornea’s outer layer and leaving it attached to the eye. The difference between these two surgeries and epi-LASIK is minor but still significant.

The surgeon uses a blunt, oscillating, plastic instrument instead of the finer metal blade used in LASIK and LASEK surgery. The surgeon does not use alcohol to aid in loosening the epithelial sheet; he uses the same blunt instrument.

This means that alcohol reactions in the eye can be avoided. This procedure is more suitable for those patients who have a low myopia. The cornea is less steep and the success rate is greater.

How Does It Work

Eye removal surgery

Eye removal surgery is completed in the most extreme circumstances and means that one or both of the eyes are removed. There are three types of surgery that can be carried out for eye removal.


Enucleation is a surgery that removes the eye but leaves the orbital contents and the eye muscles and intact in the eye socket. This surgery is normally completed when a person has tumors behind or around the eye, because when the tumors grow they impact the eye and orbit, damaging the parts of the eye they have restricted and causing a lot of pain.

Like most eye removal surgeries, the patient can have a prosthetic eye post surgery for cosmetic reasons.


This surgery is normally carried out on someone who is already blind in the eye being prepared for surgery and is having a lot of pain in the blind eye. During surgry the eye is removed, only leaving the scleral shell and extraocular muscles in the eye socket. Once the eye has been removed the patient can have an ocular prosthetic put over the eye socket for cosmetic purposes.

This surgery can be difficult for patients if they have vision in the second eye because they will see a huge visual difference in their appearance, although the prosthetic eye can be very concealing.

What is Atrial Myxoma

An atrial myxoma is a non-cancerous form of a tumor that develops either in the right side of the heart or the upper left side of the heart. This heart tumor forms on the wall that separates the one side of the heart from the other. This wall is known as the atrial septum.

An atrial myxoma (or sometimes referred to simply as a myxoma) is a primary heart or cardiac tumor that got its start from inside of the heart. There are other forms of heart tumors but this is the only kind that develops from inside the heart. It is rare to develop a primary heart tumor however of the group of them, myxomas are the most widespread.

Approximately 75 percent of all atrial myxomas develop in the left atrium for reasons unknown. Generally the tumor starts in the wall that separates the two upper chambers the comprise the heart. Approximately 25 percent of myxomas develop in the right atrium. When atrial myxomas develop in the right atrium they are often linked to atrial fibrillation and/or tricuspid stenosis.


Atrial myxomas are more widespread in females than they are in males. Why this is the case is unclear to members of the medical community. It is estimated that ten percent of myxomas. When heart tumors are genetically linked they are referred to as familial myxomas. These types of cardiac tumors have a tendency to show themselves at an early age and to take place in more than one region of the heart.

What is Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

Pulmonary valve stenosis is also sometimes referred to as heart valve pulmonary stenosis or valvular pulmonary stenosis. Pulmonary valvular stenosis is a health condition that usually makes itself known at birth (and therefore is congenital in nature) and in this case the blood that is being transported from the lower chamber of the heart (or the right ventricle) is obstructed in one way or another once it reaches the pulmonic valve. The pulmonic valve is the valve which provides separation between the heart and the pulmonary artery.


The most common reason for pulmonary valve stenosis to occur is when there is a malformation when the fetus is in its developmental stage. The precise cause of this heart problem is unclear. Sometimes a narrowing may show itself in the pulmonary valve or else the narrowing might occur beneath the pulmonary valve and be in the pulmonary artery instead.

Sometimes pulmonary valve stenosis is a defect that stands on its own but often times it appears alongside other defects of the heart. This problem can range from mild to moderate to severe and it known to occur in approximately ten percent of patients who have been diagnosed with congenital heart disease.