Breast Cancer Causes

Although breast cancer is one of the most common forms of the disease and probably the one that has been most studied, the exact factors that cause it are still largely unknown. As with other forms of cancer, medicine has emphasized on a few natural and artificial factors that are believed to have a great effect in the formation of breast cancer cells. These include one’s age, daily diet, alcohol consumption, use of hormonal-disrupting medication or exposure to certain types of light.

Besides these factors that hold a relative certainty and are proven as a cause of breast cancer, there are a few other unproven ones, such as the use of aluminum salts (found in anti-perspirants) or even abortion, which is thought to disturb the hormone and estrogen levels of a woman, increasing the risk of breast cancer. The latter view on abortion has been heavily combated by many institutions and scientific studies, so the effect it might have as a cause for breast cancer is purely hypothetical and unproven.


But let’s take a look at the “proven” causes for breast cancer, since; after all, these are the ones of interest. Age for example is one such cause and it has been scientifically proven that the risk of getting breast cancer increases with age. Studies have shown that for a woman living to the age of 90, the chances of her suffering from breast cancer during her lifetime are roughly around 12-13%.

Breast Cancer Symptoms

Early breast cancer does not have any symptoms nor is it painful. Most breast cancer is discovered before the symptoms become present either by the find of an abnormality on a mammography or by feeling a lump in the breast. Some women notice a lump under the arm or above the collar bone which does not go away. There are other symptoms which may become present such as discharge from the breast, inversion of the nipple or changes to the skin which overlies the breast.


Most lumps that are found in the breast are not cancerous. However, they all need to be checked and evaluated by a doctor.


Although rarely a symptom of cancer, discharge from the breast is a common problem. It is more concerning if the discharge is occurring in one breast and/or has a blood in it. All breast discharge should be checked out by a doctor. It is very common for normal nipples to be inverted although if they do this as a new development, there is cause for concern and this should also be discussed with your doctor.


If breast cancer is present, there may also be changes to the skin on the breast such as redness, texture changes or puckering. Skin diseases can also cause these changes so don’t be too alarmed. However you should get these types of changes checked out, as they may also be associated with breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Screening

Similarly to most other diseases and conditions as damaging as cancer, a good prevention and screening is oftentimes more important and more useful than the actual treatment, which might be either risky or ineffective. Although surgery is a relatively effective way of treating breast cancer, in the unfortunate event that the tumor is not discovered in time, it might be too late even for this radical treatment to work. That’s why most cancer specialists agree in unison that a good screening process is vital in the fight against breast cancer.

Self Exam

Although there are many forms of breast cancer screening, some more effective than others, the two main methods remain mammography and breast self examination. The latter, as the name suggests, can be produced by anyone, without the need of a trip to the doctor or any tools and accessories. Basically, breast self-examination (or BSE) is correctly done if it follows the set of steps presented below:

    1. Stand in front of a mirror that allows you to clearly see your body, from the waist up.
    2. Expose your top and place your hands on your hips.
    3. While in this position, look for any swellings, red spots or bumps on your breasts in the mirror.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a cancer that occurs in the tissues of the breast. It involves a group of abnormal cells which start to have abnormal growth patterns. It is a illness which is found primarily in women, although approximately 1% of breast cancer occurs in men.

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that occurs in women and following lung cancer, it is the second leading cause of cancer death in females. 184,200 new cases of breast cancer were reported in the year 2000 by the American Cancer Society, and this figure appears to be rising on a yearly basis.


The breasts in women are a complicated piece of machinery which consist of glands, fat and connective fibrous tissue. They have several lobes, divided into lobules which end in the milk glands. There are tiny ducts which from the numerous tiny glands and after connecting together, end in the nipple.

Identical Twins and Lymphoma

Identical twins have the same genetic composition. As such, where the other twin so found to have some genetic anomaly in his or her system, the other twin could also harbor the same illness. In the case of lymphoma, especially those which are indolent or slow growing, the twins are considered as a double risk where when one is afflicted with the disease, the other is said to be 100% at risk to contract the disease in the near future.

Lymphoma Types

Lymphoma is a type of cancer which attacks the lymphocytes of the patient. There are two major classifications of lymphoma namely Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The term Hodgkin’s is coined after the scientist Thomas Hodgkin who discovered the first lymphoma in 1832. After the discovery of Hodgkin in 1832, lymphoma researches have discovered that there are other types of lymphoma that exhibits different characteristics and behaviors that that originally discovered by Hodgkin.

These other forms of lymphoma, which are considered different from the Hodgkin discovery are collectively referred to as Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and are now about 30 types. Since Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has become a very broad classification, it had been further classified into two categories namely aggressive and indolent lymphomas.

Slow Growing Non Hodgkins Lymphomas

There are two main classifications of lymphoma, the Hodgkin’s lymphoma, named after Thomas Hodgkin who discovered the disease in 1832 and the Non-Hodgkin’s group which is composed of about 30 types of lymphoma which were discovered by scientist after 1832. All types of lymphoma have different characteristics and behavior although the target of the cancer cells is the same, the lymphatic system. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is rather a large group and is further classified into two types, the slow growing or the low-grade type and the aggressive or the high-grade type.

Low Grade Lymphoma

Low-grade lymphoma grows very slowly and often times do not manifest any symptoms at all in the early stages. Low grade are usually in the advanced stage before the patient starts to have symptoms and eventually consult a doctor regarding his or her health concerns. In some cases, slow growing lymphoma is discovered by accident during routine check ups like blood test and X-rays.

In these instances, abnormalities could be detected in the lymph nodes of the patient although the patient does not really feel anything wrong in his or her body. It should always be remembered that Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma does may cause swelling in the lymph nodes but these swelling re usually non-painful and could easily be dismissed by the patient as nothing more than just a little swelling.

What is Primary Enuresis

Primary enuresis or primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is when a child has easily developed the ability to control their bladder during the daytime but still after a six month period cannot control their bladder at nigh while they sleep. Bed wetting affects approximately five to seven million children every year, more of these boys than girls.

Primary enuresis is particularly common in children who are six years and younger and in most cases it is something that children will outgrow. Studies have shown that approximately every fifteen out of one hundred children who are chronic bed wetters simply stop doing the behavior and do not require a visit to the doctors or any form of treatment whatsoever.

Side Effects

Most children who suffer from this chronic problem are embarrassed and troubled by it. It is important to reassure children who suffer from this chronic problem that this is a problem that will go away in time. Also make your child aware that bed wetting does not mean that he or she is strange or abnormal in any way, not physically and not psychologically. For some children it is a natural part of their development and bladder control is not achieved at the same age for every child.