Eye Muscle Surgery

Eye muscle surgery, officially called strabismus surgery, is used to correct misaligned eyes and is done by the use of surgical techniques on the extra ocular muscles.

There are seven muscles in total within the eye these are the

    • Levator palpebrae superioris
    • Superior rectus
    • Inferior rectus
    • Lateral rectus
    • Medial rectus
    • Superior oblique
    • Inferior oblique

Definition of misaligned eyes

When we look at an object our eyes are both aimed at one object creating two images the same that are sent to the brain where it fuses the images together and creates a three dimensional image.

If one eye is out of line with the other then the images sent to the brain differ greatly, when this occurs the brain will, in a lot of cases, dismiss one of the images and only use one of the images sent for visual purposes.

When this occurs in young children it can have dire consequences as the child’s brain only takes one image causing development of vision to become limited as the image sent may miss a lot of images of visual importance and the eye sending images that are unused may not develop much further at all.

Definition of Astigmatic Keratotomy

Astigmatic keratotomy surgery is safe and effective but has been replaced with the more modern LASIK surgery. Astigmatism is a problem with many eye patients. An eye that has astigmatism is shaped like a football.

Surgery is needed to reduce the steepness of the cornea and make it more rounded. This is often done while other forms of corrective surgery are done. Astigmatisms are hard to treat unless they are mild.

Astigmatic keratotomy surgery involves one or two incisions allowing the cornea to relax into a more natural state. This allows the cornea to round out and decrease the steepness to allow for better vision. Severe forms of astigmatism may be treated with astigmatic keratotomy but may still need glasses or contact lenses for ideal vision.


What is Photo Refractive Keratectomy

Photo refractive keratectomy (PRK) is one type of laser eye surgery. Photo refractive keratectomy is used to correct mild forms of astigmatism, nearsightedness or long sightedness.

Like any other form of laser eye surgery, PRK works by using a laser to reshape the cornea so the light passing through the eye does so on the correct path to hit the optical nerve at the back of the eye so vision is restored to a better level. Laser eye surgery will not increase a person vision to a perfect 20/20 in most cases but will restore vision to a respectable 20/40 or better without the aid of glasses or contact lenses.


There are disadvantages to photo refractive keratectomy surgery, one of these is the side affect to the surgery which means you may have irritation to the eye for a few days and the eye may water, what makes this worse is that you cannot rub the eye to alleviate the irritation. The another two affects are the cost of the surgery which some people can find unobtainable and that some people still require the aid of glasses after surgery.

The length of time it takes for the eyes vision to improve after surgery takes a lot longer than other laser surgeries because it is not invasive, some patients like to see the benefits of the surgery a lot quicker than the surgery does sometimes.

What is Oculoplastic Surgery

Oculoplastic surgery, which can also be known, as oculoplastics is the surgery to correct cosmetic issues with the eye and reconstructive surgery to the eye due to trauma and other reasons that may cause damage.

Oculoplastic surgery does not normally work directly on the eye but does work on the structures and various tissues that make up part of the eye and surrounding areas. This may come in the form of an eye lift which is surgery carried out to the eye lids, repairing fractures to the orbit (the socket of the eye made of bone) or removing an obstructions near or in the tear ducts.

Some of these treatments are just for visual appearance (cosmetic surgeries) while others are carried out for medical reasons. Below is a list of the most common forms of oculoplastic surgery that are carried out for various reasons.

Eye Lift

This is a cosmetic surgery that is carried out to reduce eyelid dropping, which can give the impression of being constantly tired and make a person appear older.

The eyelift involves the surgeon making incisions where the crease of the upper and lower eyelids while a patient is under local anesthetic. The surgeon removes excess skin and fatty deposits before sewing stitches in where the incisions were made. There is scarring due to the surgery but because the incisions are made in the crease of the eyelids they cannot be seen once the incision has healed.

Laser Peripheral Iridotomy

Laser peripheral Iridotomy or PI is performed on patients who have acute angle closure glaucoma. It will also correct patients with the problem of narrow angle vision. A patient has “narrow angles” when the aqueous fluid is not allowing the fluid to drain because of a bowed iris.

The fluid normally escapes the eye by flowing between the lens and the iris. The trabecular meshwork found where the cornea meets the iris and allows the fluid to drain. If the iris is bowed, the fluid will not drain.

Alternative Surgery for Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma

Laser peripheral Iridotomy surgery involves creating a small hole in the peripheral iris. This allows the fluid to flow from behind the iris directly to the outer chamber of the eye. This normally will take care of the bowed iris. This surgery is easily done in the office of the surgeon, or as an outpatient procedure.

The pupil is normally constricted with special eye drops, the head is positioned, and the procedure completed with a laser beam. Normally this does not require any sedation. Topical anesthetic drops may be applied to better control the laser beam.

This procedure takes only minutes to complete. Eye drops may be needed to keep the eye from becoming inflamed after surgery. You will normally stop using these eye drops after a few days.

Non Refractive Eye Surgeries

There are other surgeries on the eye that are not specifically to improve your vision. There are conditions and complications of the eye that do need laser or incision surgery. One of the most common forms of eye surgery is to remove cataracts.

A cataract is a cloudiness of the eye’s lens and is normally because of aging or occasionally from a trauma. A cataract prevents light from forming a clear image on the retina of the eye. Surgical removal of the lens may be necessary. The lens is replaced with a plastic intraocular lens. Cataract surgery is done often and has no complications or lengthy recovery times.


Another common form of eye surgery is to correct glaucoma problems. Glaucoma is a group of diseases that result in vision loss because they affect the optic nerve. There are various glaucoma surgeries and sometimes a surgeon will use a combination of several surgeries to lower intraocular pressure.

These surgeries will either help the eye to release excess aqueous humor from the eye or to lower the production of that material. An excess of aqueous humor raises intraocular pressure and causes glaucoma. There are various surgeries that will correct the excess of aqueous humor. A few of them are:

Histoplasmosis Lesion Surgery

Histoplasmosis is common for people living in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. Histoplasmosis is believed caused by the farm dust in that area. Agriculture is the blamed for the flu-like symptoms of histoplasmosis. This is especially true because of the soil has been enriched with bird and bat droppings. Histoplasmosis is usually found in the lungs, the patient is treated and they go on with their life.

If the disease has spread to other parts of the body, it can create serious health problems. This disease is treated with a medication that works against fungus. Histoplasmosis is taken into the body by the air people breathe that is infected with fungus spores.

The fungus often grows around old chicken houses, in caves and other areas where bats live. It can also be found where there is a large flock of blackbirds. People who live or have lived on farms are susceptible to this disease and its complications.

People who have this disease usually have no noticeable aftereffects unless their eyes are affected. Small lesions may occur that might lead to new blood vessels and scar tissue in the retina.

Will Surgery Help

What is LASEK

Laser assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy is a form of laser eye surgery that many people are turning to more and more, removing the need to wear glasses or contact lenses. Lasek is a relatively new surgery and is almost a variation of PRK laser surgery.

Laser-Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy

The treatment involves using an excimer laser (ultraviolet chemical laser) to burn off tissue from the corneal stroma (tough, fibrous tissue), which is located at the front of the eye.

Before the laser is used to burn off the tissue, surgeons remove the outer layer of the cornea known as the epithelium with a trephine before applying an alcohol based substance for a short period to loosen the epithelium; this tissue is soft and has the ability to grow again quite rapidly.

The epithelium is then moved like a flap of skin so the laser can work on the corneal tissue underneath. The deeper layer within the cornea if reshaped by laser treatment won’t regenerate as easily as the epithelium and only has limited healing powers.

The after affects of surgery